Dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe) is a novel nanotechnology for oxygen delivery with therapeutic potential for hemorrhagic shock and/or traumatic brain injury (TBI). DDFPe demonstrates efficacy at smaller doses than previously tested perfluorocarbon oxygen therapeutics. This smaller dose potentially eliminates toxicities exhibited by previous oxygen therapeutics, while anti-inflammatory properties of DDFPe may alleviate damage from ischemia reperfusion injury. This mini-review summarizes our progress in developing a battle-field ready product to prevent combat death due to hemorrhagic shock and/or TBI.
Final report to the US Army Command. In the first part of the study, pigs are given severe bleeding. Controls specimens see 30% survival (n=19), and pigs given DDFPe see 100% survival (n=6) with good physiological values for more than six hours. In the second part of the study, pigs are given severe bleeding, are left alone for 35 minutes to develop hemorrhagic shock, then given DDFPe. 100% (n=6) survive and act normally for 14 days afterwards. Dated: 2009
Abstract - Pigs given 50% blood loss see 20% survival in controls (n=5) and 100% survival in those given DDFPe (n=5). These results strongly suggest that hypoxia is a crucial element in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock and that DDFPe treatment with extremely small doses may extend the "Golden Hour " several fold before full-resource treatment must be given. Dated: 2004
Abstract - Van Liew and Burkard (J.Appl. Physiol. 81:500-508, 1996) predicted theoretically that stabilized microbubbles might be capable of supporting exchange of physiological gases between lungs and tissues. This hypothesis was tested by hemoglobin depletion in anesthetized rats. We conclude that the DDFP microbubbles in the circulation can sustain physiological gas exchange in the absence of oxygen-enriched gas mixture. This novel method may allow the development of a clinically useful blood substitute. Dated: 1999
Abstract - Rats were given severe bleeding. The control rats could not be brought out of the anesthesia, exhibited an irreversible loss of blood pressure, and died at Hb concentration of 2.8 g/100ml. By contrast, all DDFP-treated rats, having an average Hb concentration of 1.4 g/100ml, gradually woke up in the O2 filled cage. They started to walk around, ate, drank, and groomed while exhibiting normal AP and HR. After 2 hours, they were retransfused with their shed blood until the Hb concentration was above 8 g/100ml (the following day it had increased to 11-12 g/100ml). The AP and HR were normal in daily checks during the next 21 days. The rats appeared and moved normally, and had a normal weight gain. Dated: 1999