Perfluorocarbon NVX-108 Increased Cerebral Oxygen Tension after Traumatic Brain Injury in rats.

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentHypoxia is a critical secondary injury mechanism in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and early intervention to alleviate post-TBI hypoxia may be beneficial. NVX-108, a dodecafluoropentane perfluorocarbon, was screened for its ability to increase brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) when administered soon after TBI. NVX-108 caused an increase in PbtO2 following controlled cortical impact TBI in rats and should be evaluated further as a possible immediate treatment for TBI. Dated: 2016

Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion Extends Window for tPA Therapy in a Rabbit Stroke Model

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDDFPe nanodroplets are exceptional oxygen transporters and can protect ischemic brain in stroke models 24 h without reperfusion. Current stroke therapy usually fails to reach patients because of delays following stroke onset. We tested using DDFPe to extend the time window for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Longer treatment windows will allow more patients more complete stroke recovery. We test DDFPe to safely extend the time window for tPA thrombolysis to 9 h after stroke. Dated: 2015

Blood Pharmacokinetics Of Dodecafluoropentane Following Administration Of Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion To Rabbits

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDDFPe was injected into New Zealand white rabbits and blood samples were taken over time. A 2-compartment model was the best fit to the DDFP blood concentration-time profiles in each of the animals tested. The drug showed a rapid distribution phase followed by a longer elimination phase. In this species, the distribution phase half-life was 1.15 ± 0.6 min while the elimination half-life was 13.5 ± 11 min.

Multiple Applications of Dodecafluropentane emulsion (DDFPe) Prevents Death in a Rabbit Stroke Model of Permanent Ischemia

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentPrevious data collected on 195 New Zealand White male or female rabbits with permanent occlusion of the cerebral arteries with two to three 700-900 micron diameter spheres was further reviewed to determine incidence of mortality in all controls and DDFPe treatment groups. The conclusion is that increasing the number of DDFPe applications was significant in reducing the incidence of premature death in a model of permanent ischemic stroke and extending survival to scheduled sacrifice. This new perfluorocarbon has previously demonstrated decreased stroke volume in the rabbit stroke model and now further indicates its ability to significantly reduce the incidence of death.

Dodecafluoropentane (DDFPe) and Decompression Sickness-Related Mortality in Rats

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDodecafloropentane emulsion (DDFPe) is not indicated in the treatment of decompression injury. In the setting of rapid decompression from a hyperbaric environment, it is likely that DDFPe's microbubbles act as nuclei for the formation of larger bubbles. DDFPe, because of its quasi-bubble state, is able to transfer far more oxygen than other materials and shows great promise in other indications such as stroke, heart attack, cancer, traumatic brain injury, blood loss, sickle cell crisis, and other conditions. However, it seems that treatment of decompression injury is not appropriate. This research provided a better understanding of the mechanism of action of DDFPe. Dated: 2015

Posterior occlusions limit effectiveness of dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe).

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Animal studies have repeatedly shown Dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe) neuroprotection in ischemic strokes in the anterior circulation; however, when a posterior vessel is also occluded, the intricate cerebral dynamics may be altered. Many studies have used standard anterior circulation occlusions as their stroke model, but approximately 20% of ischemic strokes involve the nonstandard posterior circulation. Animals in the non-standard group that were given both anterior and posterior strokes showed no statistically significant change in stroke volume (p=0.82) with treatment, while animals in the standard group showed statistically significant reductions in stroke volume (p=0.018) with treatment. Dated: 2015