Longterm Survival of Potentially Lethal Hemorrhagic Shock after treatment with Intravascular Microbubbles

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Pigs given 50% blood loss see 20% survival in controls (n=5) and 100% survival in those given DDFPe (n=5). These results strongly suggest that hypoxia is a crucial element in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock and that DDFPe treatment with extremely small doses may extend the "Golden Hour " several fold before full-resource treatment must be given. Dated: 2004

Radiosensitization of Hypoxic Tumor Cells by Dodecafluoropentane

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentOne method to make hypoxic, radioresistant cells more radiation sensitive has been to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of normal blood using liquid perfluorochemical emulsions combined with breathing high pO2 gases. We investigated the ability of dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) to sensitize the moderately radiation-resistant Morris 7777 hepatoma based on our previous inability to modify the radiation response of this tumor. Dated: 2002

Human pharmacokinetics of a perfluorocarbon ultrasound contrast agent evaluated with gas chromatography.

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentThe purpose of this study was to prospectively study the human pharmacokinetics of an ultrasound (US) contrast agent through its active ingredient, dodecafluoropentane (DDFP). In expired air, DDFP concentration exhibited a biexponential decay. The percentage of recovery was 98 +/- 19% at 2 h. No extraneous peaks were observed, indicating no detectable DDFP metabolites. It was concluded that DDFP pharmacokinetics in blood fitted to an open one-compartment model with a fast elimination half-life. Recovery in expired air was almost complete 2 h after administration. Dated: 2001

Intravascular Perfluorocarbon Stabilized Microbubbles for Treatment of Hypoxemia Due to an Experimental Pulmonary Shunt

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentPlease see page 106 of the pdf. Circulatory left to right shunts present an intruiging problem because O2 breathing will not substantially increase the O2 content of the unshunted blood or the total O2 delivery. In this study, pigs airways were blocked using steel beads. The pigs received infusions of DDFPe. Minutes after the infusion, the PaO2 increased in all treated animals. PaCO2 and pH normalized after infusion. The results lasted up to 5 hours. These results suggest that DDFPe infusion in combination with O2 breathing could be a valuable treatment to mitigate hypoxemia in right-to-left circulatory shunts of different etiologies.

Stabilized Microbubbles as a Blood Substitute

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Van Liew and Burkard (J.Appl. Physiol. 81:500-508, 1996) predicted theoretically that stabilized microbubbles might be capable of supporting exchange of physiological gases between lungs and tissues. This hypothesis was tested by hemoglobin depletion in anesthetized rats. We conclude that the DDFP microbubbles in the circulation can sustain physiological gas exchange in the absence of oxygen-enriched gas mixture. This novel method may allow the development of a clinically useful blood substitute. Dated: 1999

Dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) Stabilized Microbubbles Support Life Without Blood in Awake Rats

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Rats were given severe bleeding. The control rats could not be brought out of the anesthesia, exhibited an irreversible loss of blood pressure, and died at Hb concentration of 2.8 g/100ml. By contrast, all DDFP-treated rats, having an average Hb concentration of 1.4 g/100ml, gradually woke up in the O2 filled cage. They started to walk around, ate, drank, and groomed while exhibiting normal AP and HR. After 2 hours, they were retransfused with their shed blood until the Hb concentration was above 8 g/100ml (the following day it had increased to 11-12 g/100ml). The AP and HR were normal in daily checks during the next 21 days. The rats appeared and moved normally, and had a normal weight gain. Dated: 1999

The Concentration of Oxygen Dissolved in Tissues at the Time of Irradiation as a Factor in Radiotherapy

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentOriginally published in 1953, this seminal work by Gray first described oxygen’s ability to be a radiosensitizer for the treatment of solid tumors. Further work over the following decades has confirmed this observation. Gray later had a unit of measure named after him for his pioneering work – one Gray is defined as the absorption of one joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter. Click here to read the publication.