Publications

Dodecafluoropentane improves neurological function following anterior ischemic stroke.

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe), an advanced oxygen transport drug, given IV at 90-min intervals maintains viability in the penumbra during cerebral ischemia in the standard rabbit anterior stroke model. This study investigated shortened dosage schedules of DDFPe in nonstandard posterior strokes following occlusions of the posterior cerebral arteries. In the standard anterior stroke group given DDFPe, the % stroke volume, neurological assessment scores, and serum glutamate were significantly decreased vs controls (p = 0.0016, 0.008, and 0.016, respectively). In the DDFPe nonstandard posterior stroke group, %SV, NAS, and serum glutamate did not differ statistically com-pared to nonstandard controls (p= 0.82, 0.097, and 0.06, respectively). In anterior strokes, DDFPe improves recovery but not in the more severe nostandard posterior strokes. Dated: 2016

NuvOx Mechanism of Action Animation

NuvOx Pharma Oxygen Therapeutic from NuvOx Pharma on Vimeo.

Perfluorocarbon NVX-108 Increased Cerebral Oxygen Tension after Traumatic Brain Injury in rats.

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentHypoxia is a critical secondary injury mechanism in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and early intervention to alleviate post-TBI hypoxia may be beneficial. NVX-108, a dodecafluoropentane perfluorocarbon, was screened for its ability to increase brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) when administered soon after TBI. NVX-108 caused an increase in PbtO2 following controlled cortical impact TBI in rats and should be evaluated further as a possible immediate treatment for TBI. Dated: 2016

Dynamic Oxygenation Measurements Using a Phosphorescent Coating Window Chamber Model

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentA mouse tumor window chamber model was made to measure the amount of oxygen in tumors in mice over time. The mice are injected with NuvOx Pharma's NVX-108, and the level of oxygen in the tumors increases significantly in the next few minutes and remains elevated for the entire 63 minute monitoring period. Dated: 2015

Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion Extends Window for tPA Therapy in a Rabbit Stroke Model

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDDFPe nanodroplets are exceptional oxygen transporters and can protect ischemic brain in stroke models 24 h without reperfusion. Current stroke therapy usually fails to reach patients because of delays following stroke onset. We tested using DDFPe to extend the time window for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Longer treatment windows will allow more patients more complete stroke recovery. We test DDFPe to safely extend the time window for tPA thrombolysis to 9 h after stroke. Dated: 2015

Blood Pharmacokinetics Of Dodecafluoropentane Following Administration Of Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion To Rabbits

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDDFPe was injected into rabbits and blood samples were taken over time. A 2-compartment model was the best fit to the DDFP blood concentration-time profiles in each of the animals tested. A rapid distribution phase followed by a longer elimination phase was observed. In this species, the distribution phase half-life was 1.15 ± 0.6 min while the elimination half-life was 13.5 ± 11 min (N=4) Dated: 2015

Multiple Applications of Dodecafluropentane emulsion (DDFPe) Prevents Death in a Rabbit Stroke Model of Permanent Ischemia

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Previous data collected on 195 New Zealand White male or female rabbits with permanent occlusion of the cerebral arteries with two to three 700-900 micron diameter spheres was further reviewed to determine incidence of mortality in all controls and DDFPe treatment groups. The conclusion is that increasing the number of DDFPe applications was significant in reducing the incidence of premature death in a model of permanent ischemic stroke and extending survival to scheduled sacrifice. This new perfluorocarbon has previously demonstrated decreased stroke volume in the rabbit stroke model and now further indicates its ability to significantly reduce the incidence of death. Dated: 2015

Dodecafluoropentane (DDFPe) and Decompression Sickness-Related Mortality in Rats

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDodecafloropentane emulsion (DDFPe) is not indicated in the treatment of decompression injury. In the setting of rapid decompression from a hyperbaric environment, it is likely that DDFPe's microbubbles act as nuclei for the formation of larger bubbles. DDFPe, because of its quasi-bubble state, is able to transfer far more oxygen than other materials and shows great promise in other indications such as stroke, heart attack, cancer, traumatic brain injury, blood loss, sickle cell crisis, and other conditions. However, it seems that treatment of decompression injury is not appropriate. This research provided a better understanding of the mechanism of action of DDFPe. Dated: 2015

Posterior occlusions limit effectiveness of dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe).

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Animal studies have repeatedly shown Dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe) neuroprotection in ischemic strokes in the anterior circulation; however, when a posterior vessel is also occluded, the intricate cerebral dynamics may be altered. Many studies have used standard anterior circulation occlusions as their stroke model, but approximately 20% of ischemic strokes involve the nonstandard posterior circulation. Animals in the non-standard group that were given both anterior and posterior strokes showed no statistically significant change in stroke volume (p=0.82) with treatment, while animals in the standard group showed statistically significant reductions in stroke volume (p=0.018) with treatment. Dated: 2015

Dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) tissue distribution following IV administration in New Zealand white rabbits.

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentVery high doses of DDFP were injected into New Zeland white rabbits. DDFP promptly reaches the brain and concentrations rise in all tissues with multiple doses. Future studies will develop a dosing regimen to optimize a wide range of therapeutic effects in ischemic states and minimize toxicity. Dated: 2014

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