Stroke

Neuroprotective Therapy for Stroke and Ischemic Disease

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentThis book, published in 2017, is a very timely compilation of cutting-edge aspects of neuroprotective therapy for ischemic stroke. This book is divided into four sections, ranging from historical aspects of neuroprotection right through to the latest aspects of clinical trial design. Chapter 26 on oxygen carriers was authored by NuvOx co-founder, Jennifer Johnson, PhD. A link to excerpts is here.

Dodecafluoropentane improves neurological function following anterior ischemic stroke.

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe), an advanced oxygen transport drug, given IV at 90-min intervals maintains viability in the penumbra during cerebral ischemia in the standard rabbit anterior stroke model. This study investigated shortened dosage schedules of DDFPe in nonstandard posterior strokes following occlusions of the posterior cerebral arteries. In the standard anterior stroke group given DDFPe, the % stroke volume, neurological assessment scores, and serum glutamate were significantly decreased vs controls (p = 0.0016, 0.008, and 0.016, respectively). In the DDFPe nonstandard posterior stroke group, %SV, NAS, and serum glutamate did not differ statistically com-pared to nonstandard controls (p= 0.82, 0.097, and 0.06, respectively). In anterior strokes, DDFPe improves recovery but not in the more severe nostandard posterior strokes. Dated: 2016

Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion Extends Window for tPA Therapy in a Rabbit Stroke Model

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDDFPe nanodroplets are exceptional oxygen transporters and can protect ischemic brain in stroke models 24 h without reperfusion. Current stroke therapy usually fails to reach patients because of delays following stroke onset. We tested using DDFPe to extend the time window for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Longer treatment windows will allow more patients more complete stroke recovery. We test DDFPe to safely extend the time window for tPA thrombolysis to 9 h after stroke. Dated: 2015

Multiple Applications of Dodecafluropentane emulsion (DDFPe) Prevents Death in a Rabbit Stroke Model of Permanent Ischemia

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentPrevious data collected on 195 New Zealand White male or female rabbits with permanent occlusion of the cerebral arteries with two to three 700-900 micron diameter spheres was further reviewed to determine incidence of mortality in all controls and DDFPe treatment groups. The conclusion is that increasing the number of DDFPe applications was significant in reducing the incidence of premature death in a model of permanent ischemic stroke and extending survival to scheduled sacrifice. This new perfluorocarbon has previously demonstrated decreased stroke volume in the rabbit stroke model and now further indicates its ability to significantly reduce the incidence of death.

A preliminary PET evaluation of dodecafluoropentane emulsion effects on rabbit brain hypoxia in stroke

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentMicroPET scans were performed using Fluorine-18 Fluoromisonidazole (FMiso), a tracer that exhibits uptake proportional to hypoxia in viable tissue. The preliminary results suggest that DDFPe curtails hypoxia in the brain following stroke.

Posterior occlusions limit effectiveness of dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe).

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Animal studies have repeatedly shown Dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe) neuroprotection in ischemic strokes in the anterior circulation; however, when a posterior vessel is also occluded, the intricate cerebral dynamics may be altered. Many studies have used standard anterior circulation occlusions as their stroke model, but approximately 20% of ischemic strokes involve the nonstandard posterior circulation. Animals in the non-standard group that were given both anterior and posterior strokes showed no statistically significant change in stroke volume (p=0.82) with treatment, while animals in the standard group showed statistically significant reductions in stroke volume (p=0.018) with treatment. Dated: 2015

Dodecafluoropentane emulsion delays and reduces MRI markers of infarction in a rat stroke model: a preliminary report.

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDDFPe delays and reduces MRI markers of acute ischemic stroke in the early hours following vascular occlusion in a rat stroke model. Further investigation of DDFPe as a neuroprotectant is warranted. Dated: 2015

Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion (DDFPe) Decreases Stroke Size and Improves Neurological Scores in a Permanent Occlusion Rat Stroke Model.

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentDDFPe treatment provides significant neuroprotection when assessed six hours post stroke. Dated: 2014

Progress in Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion as a Neuroprotective Agent in a Rabbit Stroke Model

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentPercent infarct volume significantly decreased for all DDFPe-treated groups compared with controls. Rapid development is warranted. Dated 2013.

Repeated Doses of DDFPe Provide Neuroprotection Up to 24 Hours Following Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rabbits

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - New Zeland White Rabbits (n=55) received cerebral angiography from a femoral artery approach. Embolic microspheres (diameter=700-900 μm) were injected into the internal carotid artery, permanently occluding the middle cerebral and/or anterior cerebral arteries. Rabbits were randomly assigned to treatment groups and sacrifice times. Intravenous DDFPe begun 1 hour after stroke onset protects the brain from ischemic injury in the rabbit model of permanent embolic stroke. Decreased infarct volumes represent salvaged brain tissue. This effect can be observed for 24 hours with repeated doses. Dated 2013.