Hemorrhagic Shock

Dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) Stabilized Microbubbles Support Life Without Blood in Awake Rats

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Rats were given severe bleeding. The control rats could not be brought out of the anesthesia, exhibited an irreversible loss of blood pressure, and died at Hb concentration of 2.8 g/100ml. By contrast, all DDFP-treated rats, having an average Hb concentration of 1.4 g/100ml, gradually woke up in the O2 filled cage. They started to walk around, ate, drank, and groomed while exhibiting normal AP and HR. After 2 hours, they were retransfused with their shed blood until the Hb concentration was above 8 g/100ml (the following day it had increased to 11-12 g/100ml). The AP and HR were normal in daily checks during the next 21 days. The rats appeared and moved normally, and had a normal weight gain. Dated: 1999

Volume-stabilized Intravascular Microbubbles Provide Vital Oxygenation in Hemoglobin Depleted Pigs During “Air Breathing”

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - We conclude that perfluorocarbon stabilized microbubbles hold promise as an erythrocyte substitute in situations, such as combat casualty care, even when oxygen is not readily available. Dated: 2001

Longterm Survival of Potentially Lethal Hemorrhagic Shock after treatment with Intravascular Microbubbles

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Pigs given 50% blood loss see 20% survival in controls (n=5) and 100% survival in those given DDFPe (n=5). These results strongly suggest that hypoxia is a crucial element in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock and that DDFPe treatment with extremely small doses may extend the "Golden Hour " several fold before full-resource treatment must be given. Dated: 2004

Development of a Minimal-Bulk Oxygen Delivery Product to Enhance Survival during Hemorrhagic Shock

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentFinal report to the US Army Command. In the first part of the study, pigs are given severe bleeding.  Controls specimens see 30% survival (n=19), and pigs given DDFPe see 100% survival (n=6) with good physiological values for more than six hours. In the second part of the study, pigs are given severe bleeding, are left alone for 35 minutes to develop hemorrhagic shock, then given DDFPe. 100% (n=6) survive and act normally for 14 days afterwards. Dated: 2009

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