Hemorrhagic Shock

Development of a Minimal-Bulk Oxygen Delivery Product to Enhance Survival during Hemorrhagic Shock

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentFinal report to the US Army Command. In the first part of the study, pigs are given severe bleeding.  Controls specimens see 30% survival (n=19), and pigs given DDFPe see 100% survival (n=6) with good physiological values for more than six hours. In the second part of the study, pigs are given severe bleeding, are left alone for 35 minutes to develop hemorrhagic shock, then given DDFPe. 100% (n=6) survive and act normally for 14 days afterwards. Dated: 2009

Intravascular Fluorocarbon-stabilized Microbubbles Protect Against Fatal Anemia in Rats

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Rats were given severe anemia via bleeding and volume replacement.  The experimental arm was given DDFPe.  0% survival for controls, 100% survival for DDFPe treated rats. Dated: 2006

Longterm Survival of Potentially Lethal Hemorrhagic Shock after treatment with Intravascular Microbubbles

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Pigs given 50% blood loss see 20% survival in controls (n=5) and 100% survival in those given DDFPe (n=5). These results strongly suggest that hypoxia is a crucial element in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock and that DDFPe treatment with extremely small doses may extend the "Golden Hour " several fold before full-resource treatment must be given. Dated: 2004

Hemorrhagic Shock in Air Breathing Pigs Treated with Bubble- Forming Intravenous Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader Document Please see page 79 of the pdf. Air breathing pigs are given severe bleeding, then within 30 minutes they and given either DDFPe or placebo. 0% of control animals survive. 100% of DDFPe treated animals survive.

Volume-stabilized Intravascular Microbubbles Provide Vital Oxygenation in Hemoglobin Depleted Pigs During “Air Breathing”

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - We conclude that perfluorocarbon stabilized microbubbles hold promise as an erythrocyte substitute in situations, such as combat casualty care, even when oxygen is not readily available. Dated: 2001

Stabilized Microbubbles as a Blood Substitute

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Van Liew and Burkard (J.Appl. Physiol. 81:500-508, 1996) predicted theoretically that stabilized microbubbles might be capable of supporting exchange of physiological gases between lungs and tissues. This hypothesis was tested by hemoglobin depletion in anesthetized rats. We conclude that the DDFP microbubbles in the circulation can sustain physiological gas exchange in the absence of oxygen-enriched gas mixture. This novel method may allow the development of a clinically useful blood substitute. Dated: 1999

Dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) Stabilized Microbubbles Support Life Without Blood in Awake Rats

Download Adobe Acrobat Reader DocumentAbstract - Rats were given severe bleeding. The control rats could not be brought out of the anesthesia, exhibited an irreversible loss of blood pressure, and died at Hb concentration of 2.8 g/100ml. By contrast, all DDFP-treated rats, having an average Hb concentration of 1.4 g/100ml, gradually woke up in the O2 filled cage. They started to walk around, ate, drank, and groomed while exhibiting normal AP and HR. After 2 hours, they were retransfused with their shed blood until the Hb concentration was above 8 g/100ml (the following day it had increased to 11-12 g/100ml). The AP and HR were normal in daily checks during the next 21 days. The rats appeared and moved normally, and had a normal weight gain. Dated: 1999

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